Brain Tumor: Symptoms, Types, Causes & Treatment

A brain tumor is an abnormal growth of cell within the brain. These growths can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous) and can originate from various types of cells found in the brain, including neurons, glial cells, and the meninges (protective membranes surrounding the brain). We are going to discuss about Brain Tumor: Symptoms, Types, Causes & Treatment. To know more visit

Benign brain tumors typically grow slowly and may not invade surrounding tissue or spread to other parts of the body. They may cause symptoms due to their size or location, but they are not considered cancerous. Malignant brain tumors, on the other hand, are cancerous and have the potential to invade nearby brain tissue and spread to other parts of the central nervous system or the body. They are more aggressive and may require more intensive treatment.

The exact causes of brain tumors are not always clear, but researchers have identified several factors that may increase the risk of developing them. These factors include genetic predisposition, exposure to ionizing radiation, immune system disorders, age, and gender.

Symptoms of brain tumors can vary widely depending on factors such as the tumor’s size, location, and rate of growth. Common symptoms may include headaches, seizures, changes in vision, cognitive changes, weakness or numbness in the limbs, personality changes, and balance and coordination problems.

Brain Tumor
Brain Tumor

Diagnosing a brain tumor typically involves a combination of imaging tests such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computed tomography (CT) scans, along with neurological examinations and sometimes a biopsy to confirm the diagnosis. Once diagnosed, the treatment approach for a brain tumor will depend on factors such as its type, size, location, and the individual’s overall health. Treatment options may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, or a combination of these modalities.

Types of Brain Tumor

Brain tumors can be classified in various ways, including by their origin, location, and behavior. Here are some common types of brain tumor:


Gliomas are tumors that originate from glial cell, which provide support and protection for neurons in the brain. They are the most common type of primary brain tumor and can be further categorized into subtypes based on the specific type of glial cell they originate from. Common types of gliomas include:


Arising from astrocytes, star-shaped glial cells, astrocytomas can occur anywhere in the brain and are graded based on their aggressiveness.
Oligodendrogliomas: Originating from oligodendrocytes, these tumors tend to grow slowly and are often found in the frontal and temporal lobes of the brain.
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM): This is the most aggressive type of glioma, characterized by rapid growth and infiltration into surrounding brain tissue. GBM is considered a grade (IV) astrocytoma.


Meningiomas are tumors that develop from the meninge, the protective membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord. They are usually benign and grow slowly, often causing symptoms due to their size and location.

Pituitary Adenomas:

These tumors originate from the pituitary gland, a pea-sized gland located at the base of the brain. Pituitary adenomas can cause hormonal imbalances and may lead to symptoms such as headaches, vision changes, and hormonal disturbances.


Medulloblastomas are a type of brain tumor that primarily affects children and originate in the cerebellum, the part of the brain responsible for coordination and balance. They are considered highly malignant and tend to spread to other parts of the central nervous system.


Schwannomas are tumors that develop from Schwann cells, which produce the myelin sheath that insulates nerves. These tumors commonly occur on the vestibular nerve, leading to symptoms such as hearing loss and imbalance.


Craniopharyngiomas are rare tumors that develop near the pituitary gland and often affect children and adolescents. They can cause a variety of symptoms depending on their size and location, including hormonal imbalances, vision changes, and headaches.

Metastatic Tumors:

Also known as secondary brain tumors, these tumors occur when cancer from another part of the body spreads to the brain. Common primary cancers that metastasize to the brain include lung, breast, and skin cancer.

These are just a few examples of the many types of brain tumors that can occur. Each type has its own characteristics, treatment options, and prognosis, and management strategies are tailored to the individual patient’s needs and circumstances.


Symptoms of a brain tumor can vary depending on factors such as the tumor’s size, location, and rate of growth. Some common symptoms may include:


Persistent or severe headaches, especially those that worsen in the morning or with changes in position, can be a common symptom of a brain tumor.


Seizures, which may include convulsions, twitching, or loss of consciousness, can occur if the tumor affects the electrical activity of the brain.

Changes in Vision:

Brain tumors can cause various visual disturbances, including blurred vision, double vision (diplopia), loss of peripheral vision, or seeing flashes of light.

Cognitive Changes:

Cognitive changes such as memory problems, difficulty concentrating, confusion, or changes in judgment and reasoning may occur as the tumor affects areas of the brain involved in cognitive function.

Weakness or Numbness:

Weakness, numbness, or tingling sensations, particularly on one side of the body or in specific limbs, may occur if the tumor compresses or damages areas of the brain responsible for controlling movement and sensation.

Personality Changes:

Brain tumors can sometimes cause changes in personality, behavior, or mood, leading to symptoms such as irritability, mood swings, apathy, or social withdrawal.

Balance and Coordination Problems:

Tumors located in or near the cerebellum, the part of the brain responsible for balance and coordination, can lead to problems with balance, coordination, and fine motor skills.

Nausea and Vomiting:

Nausea and vomiting may occur, particularly if the tumor increases pressure within the skull or affects areas of the brain involved in regulating nausea and vomiting.

Speech and Language Difficulties:

Tumors located in areas of the brain involved in speech and language processing can cause difficulties with speech production, comprehension, or expression.

Changes in Sensation:

Changes in sensation, such as tingling, numbness, or abnormal sensations (paresthesia), may occur if the tumor affects sensory areas of the brain.

It’s important to note that these symptoms can also be caused by other conditions, so a thorough medical evaluation is necessary to determine the underlying cause. If you or someone you know is experiencing symptoms suggestive of a brain tumor, it’s essential to seek prompt medical attention for proper evaluation and care. Early diagnosis and treatment can significantly impact outcomes for individuals with brain tumors.

Causes of Brain Tumor

The exact cause of brain tumors is often not known, but researchers have identified several factors that may contribute to their development. These factors include:

Genetic Predisposition:

Some individuals may inherit genetic mutations or predispositions that increase their risk of developing certain types of brain tumors. Conditions such as neurofibromatosis, Li-Fraumeni syndrome, tuberous sclerosis, and Von Hippel-Lindau disease are examples of genetic syndromes associated with an increased risk of brain tumors.

Exposure to Ionizing Radiation:

Previous exposure to ionizing radiation, whether from medical treatments (such as radiation therapy for other cancers) or environmental sources (such as nuclear fallout or radiation accidents), has been linked to an increased risk of developing brain tumor.


The risk of developing a brain tumor tends to increase with age, with certain types of tumors being more common in older adults. However, brain tumors can occur at any age, including in children and young adults.

Immune System Disorders:

Conditions that weaken the immune system, such as HIV/AIDS or conditions requiring immunosuppressive medications (e.g., after organ transplantation), may increase the risk of certain types of brain tumors.

Exposure to Environmental Toxins:

While the evidence is limited, some studies suggest that exposure to certain environmental toxins or carcinogens may be associated with an increased risk of developing brain tumors. These toxins may include pesticides, industrial chemicals, and other environmental pollutants.

Family History:

Although most brain tumors are not inherited, having a family history of brain tumors or certain genetic syndromes can increase the risk of developing them. In some cases, multiple family members may be affected, suggesting a genetic predisposition.

Viral Infections:

While rare, certain viral infections have been implicated in the development of brain tumors. For example, infection with the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) has been associated with an increased risk of developing primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL).

It’s important to note that while these factors may increase the risk of developing brain tumors, not everyone exposed to these factors will develop one. Additionally, in many cases, the exact cause of a brain tumor remains unknown, and further research is needed to fully understand the underlying mechanisms involved. Early detection, prompt medical evaluation, and appropriate treatment are key in managing brain tumors and improving outcomes for affected individuals.

Treatment of Brain Tumor

The treatment of a brain tumor depends on various factors, including the type of tumor, its location, size, and the overall health of the individual. Here are some common treatment options for brain tumors:


Surgery is often the first-line treatment for brain tumors, especially if the tumor is accessible and its removal is deemed safe. The goal of surgery is to remove as much of the tumor as possible while minimizing damage to surrounding healthy brain tissue. In some cases, complete removal may not be feasible due to the tumor’s location or size.

Radiation Therapy:

Radiation therapy uses high-energy beams to target and destroy cancer cell. It may be used alone or in combination with surgery and/or chemotherapy, depending on the type and stage of the tumor. Radiation therapy may be delivered externally (external beam radiation) or internally (brachytherapy), and it can help shrink tumors, relieve symptoms, and slow tumor growth.


Chemotherapy involves the use of drugs to kill cancer cells or inhibit their growth. It may be administered orally or intravenously and is often used in combination with surgery and/or radiation therapy for certain types of brain tumors. Chemotherapy can be particularly effective for tumors that have spread from other parts of the body (metastatic brain tumors).

Targeted Therapy:

Targeted therapy involves the use of drugs that specifically target molecular abnormalities or genetic mutations present in cancer cells. This approach can help block the growth and spread of tumor cells while sparing healthy cells. Targeted therapy may be used in conjunction with other treatments for certain types of brain tumors.


Immunotherapy works by harnessing the body’s immune system to recognize and attack cancer cell. While it is still being studied for the treatment of brain tumors, immunotherapy has shown promise in certain cases, particularly for certain types of gliomas.


Steroids such as dexamethasone may be prescribed to reduce swelling and alleviate symptoms caused by the tumor pressing on surrounding brain tissue. Steroid can help improve quality of life and may be used alongside other treatments.

Supportive Care:

In addition to medical treatments, supportive care plays a crucial role in managing symptoms and improving quality of life for individuals with brain tumors. This may include pain management, physical therapy, occupational therapy, speech therapy, nutritional support, and counseling services.

It’s important to note that the choice of treatment will depend on individual factors, and treatment plans are often tailored to each patient’s specific needs and circumstances. A multidisciplinary team of healthcare professionals, including neurosurgeons, oncologists, radiation oncologists, and other specialists, collaborates to develop a comprehensive treatment approach that maximizes the chances of successful outcomes while minimizing side effects and complications.

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